Uniquely situated at the intersection of Europe and Asia, Turkey has always been a place where cultures meet. With a history stretching back to early human civilization, it now possesses a strong, diversified economy, giving it an upper-middle income designation and membership in the G-20. Despite these advantages, Turkey faces many development challenges. The most well-known may be the high number of refugees from various parts of the world, which the country has sometimes struggled to integrate. Additionally, tensions between Islamism and secular factions, as well as the Kurdish independence movement, have also proven to be vexing issues.